Architecture and Architectural Sculpture
Doric and Ionic orders.
Doric formulated on the mainland; the Ionic was the order of choice in the Aegean Islans and coast of Asia Minor.
shaft is the vertical channels.
The columns of the Temple of Hera are swelling at the middle of the shafts.
Temple of Artemis, Corfu
The hideous Medusa and two panthers at the center of this early pediment served as temple gaurdians.
It’s a hard task for Greek sculptor.
PREDYNASTIC AND EARLY DYNASTIC PERIODS
Painting and Sculpture
PALETTE OF KING NARMER
Narmer’s palette’s narration is the normal form in Egypt, the artist use registers to make the palette more orderly, the figures in the palette combining profile view and frontal view. The pharaoh is the biggest in the center.
Mastaba is the standard tomb type in early Egypt. It’s a rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides.
The Sumerians developed city-states and formed a white temple for rituals. Sumerians also produced great literature.
It is a female head make up with fragments of white marble.
It was the first work of pictorial narration.
The oversized eyes of these statuettes depict that the worships for deities and the wakefulness to the connection between deities and them.
STELE OF THE VULTURES
The steel shows the battle of Sumerian.
Anatolia and Mesopotamia
The agriculture developed, many towns developed, so the
Around 7000 BCE, they developed stone buildings to defend nomad, it’s a great achievement, and they used the skulls for rituals, also using plaster to restore the skull, and inlaid seashells as eyes.
They remarked the beginning of monumental sculptures in Mesopotamia.
It developed the depiction of the human body, the shape of the torso, not only the profile.… ...➔➔➔
What shall be my subject? -animals, but men are rare. They’re almost profiled because the only profile can show the essence.
Paleolithic human-headed shows that the ivory figure is very important for the artist.
Nude woman shows fertility images. The intents of makers maybe the female form.
Ancient artists always painted statuette.
The sculptors usually change the subject to keep the profile view and details.
Art in the Old Stone Age
The question… ...➔➔➔
Carving and Casting: Subtractive, and addictive.
Relief sculpture: some sculpture is very boldly.
Art historian should learn in other disciplines.
No one can be truly objective.
Texture reflects the material.
SPACE, MASS, and VOLUME
Perspective, Foreshortening Foreshortening is one form of perspective, Rubens use it, Egyptian artists don’t use it, neither is the correct.
Proportion, and Scale Proportion can be changed for some intention.
Who made it? From the personal style, art historian can attribute who made these art works.
Who paid for it? Patrons always have a big influence when artists are commissioned. They can change subjects and style in an artwork, under these circumstances, personal style is not important. So it is necessary to know who paid for it?
Basic words for art historian:
Form and composition (not only two dimensions but also 3D)
Material and Technique
Line (like Durer’s The Four Horsemen,… ...➔➔➔
What is art history:
Art history aims to learn and find the history and development of art.
The questions art historians should ask:
How old is it?
What is it’s style?