Introduction 1

Wang Ch’ung displays a liberalism unique. He thik the present is better than the past, same as Ge Hong.
Cao Cao, was a competent poet. Cao Pi, 典論論文
蕭統,he accounted for excluding the Classics and historical works from his anthology, because they were not pure literature.
Cao Pi consider that Qi, is born with us, it cannot be changed by instruction.

陸機 文賦
All external vision and sound are suspended, Perpetual thought itself gropes in time and space; Then, the spirit at full gallop reaches the eight limits of the cosmos, And the mind, self-buoyant, will ever soar to new unsurmountable heights. Through arduous work, we can reach the artistic impulse.
Great Void, Profound Silence.

左思 三都賦 poetry-sentiments fu-describe what we see. His fu has caused the price of paper in Lo-yang to go up.

To Ge Hong, we should keep a balance between natural telent(by Cao Pei) and discipline (by Lu Chi).

沈約 criticized that the rules governing poetic language.


鐘嶸 詩品

II. Liu Hsieh and His Literary Theories

1. Liu Hsieh the Man
He is commissioned by Emperor Wu, and became a monk.
His Buddhist name is Hui-ti.
In the world with transitory nature, writing is a worthy way to reach immortality.

2. Liu Hsieh’s Classicism
“On Tao, the Source,” followed by “Evidence from the Sage.”
He considerd that sages established the mindof the literature universe.
The Li-sao contains a style of tien and kao.
He believes that Yue-fu rose after the decline of the ya and odes. literary history, literary theory and literary appreciation and evaluation formed the literary criticism.
He gave Lu Zhi a verdict, said that its superficial attention to details which causing Wen Fu cannot dealt with the substance.
Literature is both sweet and useful.
He had a broad view of the literature scope.
Liu also emphasize the influence from moral and political.

Literary forms are not fallacious in themselves. It’s the reason that later poets fabricated emotions to fit literary forms.

Liu conceives of eight different sytles which vary with individuals.

Genius have the ability to forge metaphors.

We cannot work against our nature. If we don’t work with, we would be exhausted and withered up.
The chapter “The Nourishing of Vitality” is a lession in spontaneity, he is effect by Chuangtzu.

He condemns the popular view of depreciating the contemporaries and worshipping the Ancients.
Maybe it’s his habit that he reiterated the traditional theory of poetic function and development. But, on the other hand, he still emphasized Poetry must change according to the needs of new ages.
He pays lip service to the Classics.
Literary value can not be formed when writers always conform to the Classics.

He didn’t talked about Classics when he was dealing with something which is purely literary, the only reference to the Classiscs is in the part “elegance and grace.”

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